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Unknown carcinogenic risk



about this glossary tool

In these situations, the cancer risk is unknown because there has been exposure to an agent that is a probable carcinogen or may be carcinogenic, but it’s not known whether the type of exposure could cause cancer.


 

Medical management involving blood transfusion bags and similar devices
Situation
Medical management involving blood transfusion bags and similar devices
Exposure
Persons subject receiving blood or similar products
Carcinogen
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
Principal route of exposure
Systemic
Target organ (or tumour type)
Not clear
Comment
No clear indication of risk despite evidence of exposure.

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Occupational exposure to agents with inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity
Situation
Occupational exposure to agents with inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity
Exposure
Workers involved
Carcinogen
Talc not containing asbestos
Gasoline exhausts
Atrazine
Principal route of exposure
Dermal & inhalation
Inhalation
Inhalation & dermal
Target organ (or tumour type)
Lung
Lung
NHL or other sites
Comment
Listing of agents in this category is limited here to agents implicated in other environmental contexts

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Consuming chlorinated drinking water
Situation
Consuming chlorinated drinking water
Exposure
Whole population
Carcinogen
Chlorinated drinking water
Dichloroacetic acid
Chloroform
Other products
Principal route of exposure
Ingestion
Target organ (or tumour type)
Urinary bladder, colo-rectum and some other sites investigated
Comment
Unequivocal evidence of the benefit of chlorination must be considered.

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Hazard presented by cell (mobile) phones
Situation
Hazard presented by cell (mobile) phones
Exposure
Cell (mobile) phone users
Carcinogen
Electromagnetic fields
 
Principal route of exposure
Irradiation
Target organ (or tumour type)
Brain
Comment
Risk associated with long term use remains to be established

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Consuming aspartame
Situation
Consuming aspartame
Exposure
Consumers of relevant foodstuffs
Carcinogen
Aspartame
Principal route of exposure Oral
Target organ (or tumour type)
Bladder or other sites
Comment
Despite negative epidemiogy, fetal exposure may be a risk

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Environmental exposure to atrazine
Situation
Environmental exposure to atrazine
Exposure
Women living in certain regions
Carcinogen
Atrazine
Principal route of exposure
Oral, inhalation
Target organ (or tumour type)
Breast
Comment
Widespread exposure

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Non-occupational exposure to solvents
Situation
Non-occupational exposure to solvents
Exposure
Persons variously using solvents
Carcinogen
Multiple agents
Principal route of exposure
Inhalation
Target organ (or tumour type)
NHL
Comment
Limited number of specific studies

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Agent in non-stick cookware and breathable all-weather clothing
Situation
Agent in non-stick cookware and breathable all-weather clothing
Exposure
Relevant consumers
Carcinogen
Perfluorooctanoic acid
Principal route of exposure
Ingestion
Target organ (or tumour type)
Not clear
Comment
Concern addresses multiple possible adverse effects apart from cancer.

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Environmental pollutants, including xenoestrogens, increasing risk of breast cancer
Situation
Environmental pollutants, including xenoestrogens, increasing risk of breast cancer
Exposure
Women in whole population
Carcinogen
Various insecticides and pollutants
 
Principal route of exposure
Presumably inhalation; priority exposure not established
Target organ (or tumour type)
Breast and other sites
Comment
Available data do not allow discrimination between multiple agents to indicate greatest harm.

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Use of irritant cosmetics
Situation
Use of irritant cosmetics
Exposure
Women who use the product
Carcinogen
Sodium lauryl sulfate
Principal route of exposure Dermal
Target organ (or tumour type)
Not clear
Comment
No clear indication of risk.

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Food additives
Situation
Food additives
Exposure
Whole population
Carcinogen
Many compounds including alitame, sodium carboxy-methyl cellulose, nitrite
Principal route of exposure Ingestion
Target organ (or tumour type)
Not clear but presumed to include colo-rectum
Comment
Review of the data indicates little increased insight of late although issue has been addressed for decades.

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Using products containing Bisphenol A
Situation
Using products containing Bisphenol A
Exposure
Entire community in light of the wide range of consumer products
Carcinogen
2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-phenyl)propane
Principal route of exposure
Ingestion and possibly other routes
Target organ (or tumour type)
Not clear
Comment
Inference of hazard from studies of spontaneous abortion and prostate cancer relapse

This information is based on peer review research published in the journal: B.W. Stewart, Banding carcinogenic risks in developed countries: A procedural basis for qualitative assessment, Mutat. Res.: Rev. Mutat. Res. (2008), doi:10.1016/j.mrrev.2007.11.007.

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This page was last updated on: Monday, November 9, 2015

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