Cancer Council Australia
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Head and neck cancer



Head and neck cancers occur inside the sinuses, nose, mouth and salivary glands down through the throat. Although these cancers are different, they are treated similarly, so are considered as a group.


Incidence and mortality

In 2010, 3122 head and neck cancers were diagnosed in Australia. These figures include cancers of the tongue, gum, mouth, salivary glands, tonsils, pharynx, nasal cavity and larynx, but not cancers of the lip.

In 2011, there were 929 deaths in Australia due to head and neck cancers.


Screening

No routine screening tests are used. White plaques or patches in the mouth (leukoplakia) may precede the development of the cancer.


Symptoms and diagnosis

Symptoms depend on the site but include:

  • pain
  • swelling
  • hoarse voice
  • difficulty swallowing
  • bad breath.

Diagnosis is by a biopsy obtained using an endoscope, needle or surgically.


Staging

The extent of the tumour is defined by the size of the lump and whether there is spread to lymph nodes or further to the lungs or bones. CT, MRI, bone and PET scans are used. Visual examination using an endoscope may be required.


Causes

The main causes are alcohol and tobacco consumption. Some head and neck cancers are related to human papilloma virus infection.


Prevention

The risk of head and neck cancers can be reduced by not smoking (or quitting) and reducing alcohol consumption.


Treatment

The definitive treatment for local disease is surgery to the primary lump and draining the lymph glands. Full dose radiotherapy may be used in sites where functions such as speech can be preserved. Radiotherapy can be given in sequence with chemotherapy (commonly cisplatin, 5 fluorouracil or the taxanes) for more advanced cancer and both can be used for symptom relief with widespread disease.


Prognosis

An individual’s prognosis depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as their age and general health at the time of diagnosis. At most sites, treatment of small, localised cancer results in at least 75% of patients surviving five years after diagnosis. With more advanced disease at diagnosis this drops to 15%.

For further information, contact Cancer Council 13 11 20 (cost of a local call within Australia).

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For more information

Sources

  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2014. ACIM (Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality) Books. Canberra: AIHW.
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2012. Cancer data: Pivot table. AIHW: Canberra.  Available from http://www.aihw.gov.au/cancer-data/.

This page was last updated on: Wednesday, October 15, 2014