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Unlikely risk



about this glossary tool

'Unlikely risk of cancer' includes situations in which there is exposure to an agent that may be carcinogenic (not yet established) or where there is little evidence to suggest the agent is carcinogenic. There is also inadequate evidence that the method of exposure would be likely to cause cancer.


 

Consuming artificial sweeteners (apart from aspartame)
Situation
Consuming artificial sweeteners (apart from aspartame)
Exposure
Diabetics; consumers of ‘diet’ drinks and food
Carcinogen
Saccharin
Cyclamate
Principal route of exposure Oral
Target organ (or tumour type)
Bladder; possibly other sites
Comment
Epidemiological data discount concerns arising from animal studies.

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Coffee drinking
Situation
Coffee drinking
Exposure
Adult population who consume coffee
Carcinogen
No specific component of coffee clearly implicated.
Principal route of exposure Ingestion
Target organ (or tumour type)
Urinary bladder,
pancreas, stomach
Comment
Multiple studies indicating lack of carcinogenic risk

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Using deodorants
Situation
Using deodorants
Exposure
Consumers of the product
Carcinogen
Alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid
Principal route of exposure
Dermal
Target organ (or tumour type)
Breast
Comment
Some studies indicating lack of risk; lack of risk inferred from other data

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Drinking fluoridated water
Situation
Drinking fluoridated water
Exposure
Whole population in particular regions
Carcinogen
Sodium fluoride
 
Principal route of exposure
Ingestion
Target organ (or tumour type) Bone
Comment
Marked body of evidence indicating lack of risk

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Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields
Situation
Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields
Exposure
Electricity workers
Carcinogen
Electromagnetic fields
Principal route of exposure Irradiation
Target organ (or tumour type)
Leukaemia, breast, brain
Comment
No consistent evidence of risk despite unequivocal evidence of exposure.

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Breast implants causing breast or other cancer
Situation
Breast implants causing breast or other cancer
Exposure
Women with breast implants
Carcinogen
Foreign body (silicone implant)
 
Principal route of exposure
Intramuscular or intraglandular
Target organ (or tumour type)
Breast
Comment
Multiple studies indicating lack of evident risk

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Dental fillings
Situation
Dental fillings
Exposure
Most of the population
Carcinogen
Dental amalgam
Principal route of exposure
Ingestion, intradental
Target organ (or tumour type)
Oral cavity and possibly other sites
Comment
Evidence of lack of risk

This information is based on peer review research published in the journal: B.W. Stewart, Banding carcinogenic risks in developed countries: A procedural basis for qualitative assessment, Mutat. Res.: Rev. Mutat. Res. (2008), doi:10.1016/j.mrrev.2007.11.007.

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This page was last updated on: Monday, November 9, 2015