Almost all cases of cervical cancer are caused by HPV.

Some very rare types of cervical cancer are not caused by HPV. There is not a suitable screening test for these types of cervical cancer. Neither the Pap test nor the new Cervical Screening Test are able to detect these types of rare cervical cancers.

These types of cervical cancers are usually found when women report symptoms like pain and abnormal bleeding. Anyone who has symptoms should see a doctor without delay - it doesn't matter how old you are or how long it's been since your last Cervical Screening Test.

Women who were exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero (that is, while they were in their mother's womb) are at increased risk of cervical cancer and should discuss tailored screening with their doctor. DES is an artificial form of the female hormone oestrogen that in the past was prescribed to some women during pregnancy.